Interested in literature on:
1) "geometric algorithms" (for example, algorithm to find minimal circle describing the array of points).
2) projective geometry (where linal/quanternion).
For example, for writing of raytracer.
2) Googling things on the subject of "computer graphics". There are courses of lectures on this subject.
1) there will not say exactly, but very similar problems of clustering. Supposedly find in the array of the center points, the most distant point from it and it will be the radius of the circle.
Cody_Padberg8 answered on July 4th 19 at 23:59
Golovanov N. N. "Geometric modeling"
Bobenko A. I., Suris Yu. b. "Discrete differential geometry. Integrable structure"
Get ready for a difficult math
Donald_Carter73 answered on July 5th 19 at 00:01
Specifically on the first question:
1. Iterate through all possible triples of points.
2. Each trio is a triangle. For him, find the center and radius of the circumscribed circle (specifically for this subtask, the algorithm is easy to vyluplivajutsja).
3. Check - whether all other points inside this triangle, and whether the circle is smaller than previously found.
I suspect it is possible even to tie some heuristics to cut clearly inappropriate threes without running all calculations - this will be true for a large number of points. But what kind of heuristics - can't think of.