What does it mean analogues of MVC? There are modifications of type MVC MVVM or MVP (in fact, about the same), there is a 3-tier architecture (but you wouldn't want to do it in PHP).
I've learned MVC on the example of CakePHP (the framework I don't like it is stupid, but as a study example good). Just read the attached manual, which shows an example of how to make a blog using MVC pattern.
Patterns you don't need yet. All patterns described in a book by Martin Fowler (here is the list: martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/
there is a translation into Russian, but it is bad ), but to understand them, one must first have some experience writing code and parse someone else's code. If you do not have it, for you, these patterns will be something alien and incomprehensible (lots of smart words but why do it if can be simple to write).
If you (suddenly) interested in patterns in order to write more accurate, high-quality, professional and support code, here it is better to be guided by universally recognized principles:
— DRY (don't repeat) — must not be duplicate pieces of code longer than a few lines should not be generating the code by copy-paste and edit, some data (for example, the list of countries) must be stored only in 1 place, not several. Following this principle improves the code architecture, simplifies support.
— KISS (do it as simple as possible) — choose the easiest way of implementation, if there are several options, and if it is not face problems in the future.
— not oriented and do not use features of PHP4. He died.
— don't rely only on HTML5/CSS3. Still, not everyone has iPads with Macs, and live IE8, IE7 and IE6.
— write your code as if after you, it will support the psycho-maniac who knows where you live. That is, do not write such things that are difficult/impossible to understand another person. Think about who will read your code. Occasionally in difficult places to put comments. You can't just throw the logic to perform the steps of 10 files. Don't do files larger than 500-1000 lines.
— give the correct names for classes, functions, constants and variables. Don't use translit ($chisloPokupatelei). Don't know an English — arm Yandex.Dictionaries/Googletranslator. Choose and follow the coding standard (I recommend Zend Coding Standard).
code features can be easily turned into OOP code by transforming functions into static methods and unions of classes.