Why Linux Ubuntu 18.04 uses hard read-only?

Today went with windows 10 on Ubuntu 18.04
Encountered some problems but managed to fix them myself. Now began to view their discs and found that the primary drive (900 gigs) is read-only. Even on Windows it was everything, and on the first disk itself Windows. Now there is only this SDD, and the second is useless, it left the files are still with Windows, but not to remove\edit\save anything

It looks like this:
Computer 102.8 GB/116.1 available/
Computer 862.4 GB / 1.0 TB available /dev/sda2 | here is the button that says "unmount"|

How to make so that I could again use the full memory, not only 100 gigs ?

I will say in advance, informed about Linux, only heard.

UPD
I tried to save to the disk file, but received error " Insufficient user rights "
March 19th 20 at 08:28
3 answers
March 19th 20 at 08:30
Solution
And you need to remove these files or leave? Run:

ls-l /dev/ | grep sd
I would like to use this disk
Keep there anything, for example, copy, paste, move and many other worldly things to produce you want with the disc - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 08:33
@Laurence, I say, data that lie there now, you need? :)
I would suggest to clean it completely, but before that I want to see the output written by me team. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 08:36
@danika12No data on the drum before you install Ubuntu with all the pre-buried on a flash drive

vasiliy@vasiliy-System-Product-Name:/media/vasiliy/Новый Tom$ ls-l /dev/ | grep sd
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 0 Mar 25 13:33 sda
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 1 Mar 25 13:33 sda1
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 2 Mar 25 14:15 sda2
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 16 Mar 25 13:33 sdb
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 17 Mar 25 13:33 sdb1
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 18 Mar 25 13:33 sdb2


Please ! - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 08:39
@Shirley, yeah, then let's clean :)
Make root:

fdisk-l
- danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 08:42
@danika12, why clean? @Laurence says he needs the data from the disk. - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 08:45
@vesta_Schulist, No, I never said ( like as )
They are on the flash drive, everything on the disc I don't need. At least I am able to return then ? Yes ?

All that's left on this volume in General after reinstalling the OS remained - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 08:48
@arnulfo, see if we now clean hard drive, all the files on it will be lost. Forever. And sections too. That is going to be one big empty disk where we will create new sections. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 08:51
@danika12,
vasiliy@vasiliy-System-Product-Name:/media/vasiliy/Новый that$ fdisk-l
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop0: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop1: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop2: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop3: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop4: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop5: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop6: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop7: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/sda: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/sdb: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-root: access is Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop8: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop9: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/loop10: access Denied
fdisk: cannot open /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-swap_1: access Denied


Does - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 08:54
@Lise, well if kept on a flash drive, run gparted and format the drive. - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 08:57
@arnulfo,
sudo fdisk-l
- danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 09:00
@arnulfo, Wait to clean there above the people brought a link with the solution. Suddenly help? - rusty.Marvin commented on March 19th 20 at 09:03
@vesta_Schulist, Opened gparted
In the following sections:
/dev/sda1(exclamation mark in a red circle ! ) the name of the Microsoft resorved partition file system is "unknown and marked with a black square," "mount point" empty label"" empty size is 128 MB


/dev/sda2(key) "name" Vasic data partition file system "ntfs and marked with a green square" "the mount point" /media/vasiliy/New volume label for the new volume size is 931 GB


You need to format ? - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 09:06
@arnulfo, /dev/sda2
Again: make sure that on this drive there is nothing important and necessary. We would not take responsibility. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 09:09
@danika12, Yes, checked this yet on Windows
Out of the house when I leave so all is not checked, as tested here
okay, format.
UPD
"I am pressed "
Pressed right-click and "format" as clear "
Then a Daw. All kind of othermaterials, but now two exclamation points and file system unknown

Now shows that there is only "computer"
The new volume is already present - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 09:12
@Shirley, the problem with the drive or the partition table.
If You have saved all the important information(!), delete this partition in gparted, create new partition table(gpt), and then a new section. File system choose ext4, for convenience, make a mark section(Latin and without spaces). - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 09:15
@Laurence, Yes, you need to create one. You want the disc to break? If you do not know, prompt. Will Linux work? - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 09:18
@danika12, Yeah, Linux will just work and learn how it works

Tell me, I'd appreciate it - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 09:21
@vesta_Schulist, @danika12,
clicked " new "
show " create new partition "
There are sections :
Free space preceding (MIB ) - default "1"
New size (MIB ): - default - 953869
Free space before (MIB ) - default 0
Align to: MIB || cylinder || no
Create as: Primary partition| logical partition || advanced section
The name of the section to give any without spaces ?
file system: many to list, I hope you know.
Label : default is empty
- arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 09:24
@arnulfo, then using GParted, just create a MBR partition table and there is one primary partition with ext4 file system. Can two sections (in two parts to divide the disk), it will be a little more comfortable. Can the second partition in ntfs format so Windows seen. But ext4 Windows can also be seen. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 09:27
@danika12, to Clarify just in case, my PC in General for\learning
In fact this is the main OS on the PC. Windows I don't need anymore
Still to do through the partition table ?
Or to make a single partition through the "partition"--> "new" ?
If you make the partition table, what type of partition table should be ? the default is msdos

gpt, I periproctal the above - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 09:30
@Shirley, Yes, msdos will do.
Section as preferred, a matter of taste, and you alone. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 09:33
@danika12, @vesta_Schulist,

Did as You said. Now looks like this
Partition: dev/sda1
Name: newDisk
The ext4 file system
Label: newDisk
size: 931 Gib
used: 15 Gib
free: 915 Gib
flags: empty


Clicked the checkbox. It all worked out. where I can watch this disc ? Click "other places" in Explorer, and there is still only one "computer" 102ГБ\116Гб - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 09:36
@Laurencewhat "checkbox" You clicked? Have remontiroval section? - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 09:39
In General it should appear in there the Conductor. Maybe after a reboot will be prescribed. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 09:42
@vesta_Schulist, " to perform all operations "
in gparted, all settings exposed and pressed the "perform surgery" in the top bar - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 09:45
@arnulfo, now disk to mount (that is, now he's just "there", and it is necessary to access its file system, to files to read and write). You can try to do it using GParted (the second button on the tab -> Mount), this is done once normally, then the system will remember what a ROM is and where it is mounted. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 09:48
@danika12, I press the right knopke on the disk and can't select " mount "
Not available. - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 09:51
@Laurence, not on the disc, and the tab. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 09:54
@danika12, Yeah, so I tried it too. The buttons are simply not present.

I mean it is, but you can't click on it - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 09:57
@Laurence, not in gparted, and already in the system, in nautilus for example. - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 10:00
@Laurence, nautilus pressed "other places" and clicked on the desired device.
5c98e10f038b2923292506.png - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 10:03
@Laurencewill appear on the right arrow and then you can go into the device. - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 10:06
@vesta_Schulist, 5c98e1f293028724428625.png
Looks like I have everything right. You have, in the same way. All right ? - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 10:09
@vesta_Schulist, No. Not so. - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 10:12
@arnulfo, click on newDisk1. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 10:15
5c98e3f0c7dc2808244915.png
So it looks
5c98e43a7d5b9430725915.png
Here is the property - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 10:18
@Shirley, you've remontirovanija disk, go into it and do what you want :)
Just open like a normal folder, which it is. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 10:21
@danika12, It would be very cool, but no way. I even folder can not create. RMB click inside the disk, but you can't click on " new folder ", "paste", "select all" - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 10:24
@arnulfo, reboot. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 10:27
@danika12, as well when trying to download any of the images on the disc, nothing happens. Absolutely. Even errors are not present - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 10:30
@Laurence, as to whether you shake?

Ah, so you have the owner of the key - root.
Show the first tab. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 10:33
@danika12, Rebooted
Still can't click on " new folder " - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 10:36
@arnulfo, display the Basic tab - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 10:39
@danika12, 5c98e5d68ea09577490612.png please - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 10:42
@arnulfo, do from root:
chmod-R 777 /media/vasiliy

Check will be written. - danika12 commented on March 19th 20 at 10:45
@arnulfo, in the properties newDisk You have owner and group root.
In the console, do the following and enjoy the new drive.
sudo chown vasiliy:vasiliy /media/vasiliy/newDisk
Only check that I wrote Your username or not. - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 10:48
@danika12optionally have @Laurence the owner and group of root. - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 10:51
@vesta_Schulist, @danika12,
HURRAY !!!
YOU ARE A GENIUS ! thank You ! Without You I would a few day sat, superhuman, thank You ! - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 10:54
@vesta_Schulist, @vesta_Schulist,

First, by the way, didn't work. It worked :
sudo chown vasiliy:vasiliy /media/vasiliy/newDisk

But nevertheless, thank you for such a Mature patience to newcomers, You are the best ! - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 10:57
You are the best !

@Lise, did You doubt it?!! Don't do it again))) - vesta_Schulist commented on March 19th 20 at 11:00
@vesta_Schulist, not for a second did not doubt, just glad we did it. Just know that everything will be done, but when 6 hours trying to figure out why the folder is not created ;D
All the best to You. Hope to see you again. - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 11:03
March 19th 20 at 08:32
In Windows you need to disable quick start mode.
On a PC, just Ubuntu
the wind blew - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 08:35
@Shirley, I don't know if it could be after the removal of the Windows. I have access to the Windows NTFS partitions is constrained after installing Linux along with Windows in dual-boot mode. As long as I'm in Windows will not disable fast boot.

But I did not understand what you are interested in NTFS partition is mounted and what is right I, for example, it was mounted: /run/media/username/cifric
where username is the name under which you registered and login in Linux, and then there is the UUID of the partition in the form of alphanumeric mumbo-Jumbo.

Find it in your system and view of the right to partition itself and not on directories and files in it. The command is ls-dl /path/to/partition - rusty.Marvin commented on March 19th 20 at 08:38
@rusty.Marvin, Thanks for the help, but the first time I put Linux
where can I get these "cifric" ?
On PC the name is 'vasiliy' - arnulfo commented on March 19th 20 at 08:41
@Shirley, I Have another system, not Ubuntu, and what needs to be done in Ubunte don't know. I open this topic in "Explorer". I have it called Dolphin, you otherwise. Next, click the right mouse button and from the context menu choose properties. It shows where the partition is mounted.

However, since you are even using sudo I can't create the file, then I'm afraid it's not trivial privileges, and deeper and are associated with libertaria and fast download of the removed Windows. But the deeper I dug, was not necessary.
If nothing happens, probably need to reformulate the question and ask it again. - rusty.Marvin commented on March 19th 20 at 08:44
March 19th 20 at 08:34
You have the drive mounted like just the reading but the comments above I understand that is already erased it.
If important data on any disks not, I recommend the following:
1) Again to make a bootable USB drive if you already formatnut it had.
2) Boot from it.
3) Run Gparted and it:
-delete all the partitions are there(except the stick which is loaded, will understand)
-re-create a "partition table" for each disk type is GPT.
#Just for convenience, we call the partition letters
#If you boot the computer using UEFI, and it probably is. in addition:
#-on the OS disk create partition 500 MB fat32 esp and flags,hidden,boot . It will be section "A" it will be the boot loader. The flags indicate that esp-UEFI boot partition hidden - that does not appear in "Explorer". boot partition the boot loader.

-on the disk on which the OS creates a partition on OSTAVSHIESYA-RAZMEROV with ext4 file system . It will be the "B" section and it will be the system itself.
-the remaining space , create a partition of type swap . This section "In" for the paging file.
-on the second disk create a partition with ext4 file system. This is step "d" and it will go with all of your user files.
-Apply and close gparted.

4) Start the installation.
5) On the partitioning step choose "manual partitioning"\"Another option" in it:
#- if the UEFI at the bottom of the window will be "Device for bootloader installation" in this section choose "A" and "use as EFI system partition"
-section "B" indicate the mount point\connect as "\"
-section "In" swap
-section "G" specify the mount point\connect as "\home"
6) continue the installation.

At the exit you will be the first disc given over to the OS and the second all the volume under your home directory i.e. /home/vasiliy.

Since a very long time, had Affairs with Ubuntu\by Debian where the titles can be not the same, please correct in comments.
About this markup :
-user files will always be safe and you can't every day to break down and reinstall the system, and if the goal is to learn the system it will be often =) Just when re do not touch section "G" and mounted it to /home
-if the ssd system we will lose a little speed because in the home directory of many files from programs, browser cache, steam it lives, etc.
-in General, this type of the correct way to markup when /home is submitted on a separate partition

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