in addition to the above (on the pulse)
the basic inevitably of the aging components:
- electrolytic capacitors (perhaps a parable of the impulses that concerns them the most)
- mechanical HDD if any. despite the increase in technological quality, wear cannot be reversed, you can only stretch (upd start/stop - always stressful for hdd mechanics
- the buttons - power, reset, digging mice
however, to burn can a chip, much earlier than the mechanical elements will become worthless. for example by the fact that rejection
the specific answer to your question - more than just aging itself is the power button
and immediately the good news:
- aging it will be very long
- and yet, this is one of the most easily replaceable elements
In the moment of switching on (and off) the power on the power bus is a high-frequency pulse and its amplitude may be higher than regular voltage. While on the bus and hang the capacitors, they degrade over time and this pulse may reach "the gentle" semiconductor chips, leading to their failure. On the other hand, the capacitors on the power lead to a steady voltage increase on the circuit, and the operation of the circuit while, on non-standard voltage, which is not very good.
On the new device shutdown must not in any way affect, but old can lead ( and leads) to the failure - most of the "combustions" occurs at the time of inclusion.
No. For electronic components and any shutdown (which is "shutdown" that "pulled out from the mains") power supply acts the same way. The mechanical — in different ways: the fan stops spinning and the hard drive is a tracking system that parks the heads and stops the spindle. The file system need to be considered specifically, for example, NTFS is transactional, asynchronous — you need to really try that would be to spoil it.
Yes, partially, the explanation is very simple. When you turn off the computer forcibly, you're not giving completed the programs and operating system. The cache is erased without recording, the temporary file is not saved as it should. As far as I know, it affects it performance hard disk is going to trash pending temporary files that the system (Windows) tries to access.
The computer itself this is not broken, but deteriorates the performance of the operating system, especially if it is Windows.
Will. But it is so minor that your computer will become obsolete sooner than fail
In the first place button. It's the mechanics, it is from taps to deteriorate and fail over time.
Also when you turn off triggers Parking of the heads on the disk, it is also a mechanic and also has a certain resource.
In addition to these problems of a purely mechanical wear of the hard drives, lubrication and bearings themselves fans, and demagnetization of the surface of the plates HDD (which can significantly improve low-level formatting of the hard drive every few years).
The electrolyte gradually evaporates through the pores microplates and materials of the buildings of the capacitors, and, as a result of chemical processes, metal plates gradually dissolve in the electrolyte, from which the capacitors degrade. Semiconductors age and degrade from the heat. Ferrite chokes are not aging as fast as the first two. I've seen many computers that have dried up conder, but only one version of the Intel processor showed thermal aging, but a whole series of this processor. What model was - I do not remember, some old stump to 4 1500mgts. Brains, I believe, "go", mostly for this reason. Metal fatigue from vibration when the conductors are not secured tightly, unable to break - a thing not very relevant for a computer, but for buttons with a metal bendable contacts (especially on cell phones where everything is tiny and very vague), different springs - easily. Most often cracks in the motherboard. Dry and brittle of the plastic parts of the housing of the computer, when different break off small lids or parts, too easily.