Want to learn how to use single Board computers and, ideally, to obtain the necessary skills to create your own microprocessor-based devices. How much all this is really for one person?
More than real.
The closest wishlist create a controller Board for a robot with a video processing / video by air hd/fhd.
Judging by your question (level of training) "wishlist" will have to be postponed very far.
Met article where simple cameras were stm'key.
You and STM, but the raspberry will be easier
It seems to me, is to understand the structure and function of some raspberries and much simplified version.
You could, but my forty years of experience suggests that you should start with something easier, for example, Arduino.
What set of skills and knowledge one must possess to create such vundervafel?
Need to know fundamentals of automation, electronics, programming, algorithms, data processing
As a much more pressing problem I see the purchase of necessary items by type or any brodcom chip RAM 1/2/4GB for a physical person in single quantities.
First, find some sort of kit Arduino
with lots of sensors. Later the same set can be used in conjunction with a Raspberry