1. First, we learn fundamentalismo (how computers work, network, and browser, http, basics of programming).
2. Then study how to operate specific web technologies (html, js, css, as all of this is parsed by the browser and rendered in the web page, learn to impose and use js, books and courses to ground).
3. Next, examine the technology that automatiseret, simplify and abstract (frameworks, bootstrap, react, pickers, jquery, new standards, grids, etc. etc.).
4. Practice, application of learning, the choice of specialization (depends on what you want to do next in the front - it could just be the layout, creating interfaces or vizualizacija data, and may be working with graphics\audio\video, trends (now react, bootstrap, foundation, babel, es6, d3, RxJS, functional programming)), continue to develop throughout life is endless. But without the first item is all for naught.
Learn what You advised here, good answers. jQuery is a good topic, it needs to know and in the 18th year, do not pay attention to "hype" and all sorts of fancy bullshit, because in reality everything is different.
JS - React, Angular, ES6 syntax
CSS - Flexbox, Yandex BEM, CSS3
HTML - HTML5