Why would you compile grub from source if it is by default available in Ubuntu?
1-6 can be skipped entirely. Instead do:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install grub-efi-ia32
Then call as a normal command without the parameter
sudo grub-install --efi-directory /boot/efi/ --target=i386
10 item strange, I would not have done.
In 11-13, use gedit instead of nano if GUI - it will be easier.
The idea is that should be enough.
14 can't hurt, can do.
The point is that the build for exotic ia32 grub available in the stock Ubuntu repositories and it should just work, shouldn't be necessary, there is something to compile. If these operations are performed from the flash drive, after falling in a working system, put there is also
so it is normally updated.