In principle, a complete answer was given to one of the new questions on the Toaster: https://toster.ru/answer?answer_id=1145680#answers...
Another had a similar comment on Victims/Habra, which I unfortunately can't find, and which resonated with my own experience and with the answer above. In a brief retelling, with my personal additions, it said about the following.
Historically, in Russia the majority of job opportunities for embedded developers in the hands of state enterprises and parastatal firms, which live at the expense of orders from different factories, municipal authorities and so on.
Pay there a little, and the newcomers are still less-salaries as for those Java-people (same level) can not count. For example, as far as I know from friends Tsykov from Moscow, all of Moscow Federal state unitary enterprises operating in the space and defense industry, the developer, who in FPGA from Xilinx and Verilog, received 20 thousand rubles a month, and it was in around 2009-2010. I myself, working in state office, received about 30 thousand rubles a month to the history of the Crimea and have (maximum) 16-17 thousand rubles a month after this story.
In addition, for the same historical reasons and specifics of work in such places love to give excessive importance to coming to work on time, in the conditional 8 in the morning. Procedures built around CVS, a bug tracker, and all such things there are usually no, and no CVS and bug tracker - my personal experience and the experience of one of my friends confirms this - you are waiting for oral job assignments and archives "The final verseas" (a work also in a perpetual emergency mode). To introduce new trends of course you can, but it's hard (to my shame, I personally was one of barriers to the introduction of git into the development process at the time).
Of course, there is still some private enterprise, where the conditions are better and pay more, but few of them and they are terribly far from the people -- because they are few and the pay is good there - everyone wants to get there, so I need to go through good competition and prove that you're a rock star and all that jazz.
I, at the time, decided not to bother and went to the area of the bloody enterprise with Java and Oracle on bread and butter now missing, and electronics remained as a separate case for self-development, which is convenient and a pleasure to deal with, it keeps the brain working and does not turn sour.
As I can see now, in the past it was necessary to strive to get by any means to master's/graduate of a foreign University, get used to the unfamiliar cultural and linguistic environment, and after also strive to get a job in a foreign company engaged in the development of embedded systems. Now would have and develop some interesting pieces, like the drones (or BigDog's) involved, and bread with butter would be enough.
UPDATE 30.01.2018: a Little add your own response:
- Under CVS, of course, meant a variety of VCS.
- I'm not saying that working abroad most certainly guaranteed to work on interesting things, like drones with BigDog'AMI. If you expand my last sentence, I meant the following: most likely I would participate in the development of some interesting pieces for me in exchange for this highly skilled work (need to figure out how in equipment and programming at the same time, not to mention all sorts of business processes, soft skills etc) worth the money, and not as now in Russia - when salaries embedded developer compared to other developers at the bottom and at the same time and need to know more and more responsibility.
Also, more likely I wouldn't be faced with the above features of (about)the state proceedings and would be easier to avoid all this, do not give up embedded, because of a much more developed (than in Russia) the private sector.